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66
METALLURGY OP IRON AND STEEL.
the carbonic acid so formed being doomed to immediate destruction on its first meeting with, the next molecule of incandescent carbon.
The final result of this combustion is the formation of carbonic oxide (CO) with no admixture of carbonic acid (C02), and this carbonic oxide rises in unchanging quantity to the point where it meets unreduced ferrous oxide (FeO). Here begins the formation of carbonic acid (C02) from both the reduction of the ore and the decomposition of the limestone, and in spite of the destruction of some carbonic acid (C02) by. the coke with formation of carbonic
TABLE II-B. Furnace Practice at Middlesborough and Pittsburg.
Middles-borough.
Pittsburgh
General conditions—
Height of furnace, feet..4...........................4..........              80                 80
Cubic contents, feet.............................................        25.500           18.200
Per cent, of metallic iron in ore..................................           39.0              59.0
Weekly product per 1000 feet cubic content, tons...............          21.57           128.00
Temperature of blast, degrees cent..............................            704                693
Temperature of tunnel head gases, degrees cent...............            260               171
Ratioof COto CO3ingases......................................           2.11              2.35
Data per ton of pig iron—
Coke, pounds....................................................          2239              1882
Limestone, pounds.............................................           1232              1011
Ore, pounds......................................................           5376              8613
Weightof blast, pounds.........................................           9761              7974
Weight of tunnel head gases, pounds............................        13.381           11,211
Slag, pounds......................................................          3136              1200
Calories used in the furnace per ton of pig iron-Reduction of Fe3O,..............................................    1.681.887       1.681,887
Reduction of metalloids In pig-iron...............................       212.039          133,655
Dissociation of CO...............................................        73,152           74,168
Fusion of pig-iron..........................................-----       335,280         335,280
Evaporation of water in coke....................................        13,970             4.216
Decomposition of-water in blast................................       120,904          118,516
Expulsion of CO3 from limestone...............................       206,756         157,175
Reduction of this CO. to CO....................................       214.579          177,190
Fusion of Slag....................................................       782,320         299,212
Radiation, cooling water, etc...................................       494,792          298,145
Total absorbed in furnace...................................    4,135,679       3,279,444
Calories in tunnel head gases per ton pig Iron-Sensible heat.....................................................       364,000          254,700
Potential as CO................. ...........,...................     3 810000       3.137,000
Total in tunnel head gas....................................    4174,000       3,391.700
Summary per ton of pig iron—
(a)  Calories used in furnace (as above)..........................    4.135,679       3.279,444
(b)  Caloriesin tunnel head gases (as above).....................    4,174,000       3,391,700
Sum of (a) and (b)..........................................'   8:309679       6,671,144'
(c)  Less calories from blast included in (a)......................      738,632          626,872
Calorific power produced per ton of Iron........................    7,571,047       6,044,272
Calorific power produced per ton of coke...,......................    7,574,400       7,196,000